Home > DIY HiFi > R-2R DAC For The REST of US

R-2R DAC For The REST of US

October 12, 2014 Leave a comment Go to comments


A Discrete R-2R Sign Magnitude 24 bit 384 Khz DAC [link].


The DAC Module includes all local power supplies, a programmable low jitter clock, Micro-controller and balanced output buffer. It is implemented on a 4-layer PCB. The board size is 3.2″ x 5.8″ (81 x 147 mm).

As the industry migrated from R2R topologies to Sigma-Delta in their quest for higher bit-depth, higher performance (and cost management), present implementations of R2R DACs are pretty much hand-crafted commanding a high premium.

As the author states:

“I believe that the sound quality will be the absolute best, better than any Delta Sigma DAC, in class with discrete DAC’s from totaldac and msb technology. And for way way less cost :-)”

For the rest of us with limited resources wanting to experience a ladder DAC, this is the DAC to have.

An excerpt from the PCM1704 [link] datasheet expunds the good points of a ladder DAC:

Digital audio systems have traditionally used laser-trimmed, current-source DACs in order to achieve sufficient accuracy.

However, even the best of these suffer from potential low-level non-linearity due to errors in the major carry bipolar zero transition. Current systems have turned to oversampling data converters, such as the popular delta-sigma architectures, to correct the linearity problems. This is done, however, at the expense of signal-to-noise performance, and the noise shaping techniques utilized by these converters creates a considerable amount of out-of-band noise. If the outputs are not properly filtered, dynamic performance of the overall system will be adversely effected.

The PCM1704 employs an innovative architecture which combines the advantages of traditional DACs (e.g., excellent full-scale performance, high signal-to-noise ratio, and ease of use) with superior low-level performance.

Granted, that was circa 1999. Since then the Sigma-Delta camp has made great strides. Even so, R2R DACs have not lost their appeal as witnessed by the interest in this project and the current commercial offerings.


The DAC module is not yet available for sale. The target price is US$240 with 0.02% resistors. This is a steal considering how much other R2R implementations cost.


The last commercially available R2R DAC chips were the PCM1704 [link] and the AD1865 [link]. They have been out of production for a long time but still available for purchase for example here [link] and here [link].

Here is a table comparing selected performance numbers and features as described in the data sheets and by the author in the diyaudio discussion thread.

  • The PCM1704 is typically used withe a companion chip, the DF1704 [link].
  • The AD1865 is also used with a companion filter chip such as the Sony CXD1244S [cxd1244s]
Parameter Seokris R2R
PCM1704+DF1704 AD1865+Digital Filter
Max Input Sample Size 24bit 24bit 18bit
Max Input Sample Rate 382KHz 96KHz 44KHz
Max Resolution 28bit (1) 24bit 18bit
Inputs (2) 1x Isolated I2S, 3x SPDIF/TOSLINK/AES/EBU [link]; future DSD upgrade Serial only (DF1704: LJ, I2S) Serial only through the digital filter chip
S/W Interface Serial (Not I2C) Serial (Not I2C) Depends on filter chip
Oversampling Filter On-board built-in and user defined (3) Sharp, Slow roll-off (DF1704) Needs External Filter
Channels 2 – Stereo PCM1704 is single channel, so DF1704+2XPCM1704 2 – Stereo
Jitter Reduction Re-clocking input data through a FIFO Buffer (similar in design to Ian’s FIFO [link]). Uses a low jitter (0.8 psec RMS) Si514 programmable clock [link] which drives the LVC595 shift registers after clock division in the FPGA (Si514 -> FPGA divider -> LVC595) None None
Output “Raw” single-ended voltage output (1.4V RMS, 1.25 Kohm) or buffered balanced voltage output using TI LME49710 + LME49724 [link] Single-ended current output Single-ended current output or buffered single-ended voltage output
Jitter Reduction FIFO Buffer and reclock with low jitter clock None None
THD+N (0db) 0.0063% .05% resistors (Module measurement) 0.0008% K-Grade (PCM1704 spec) 0.003% J/K Grade (AD1865 spec)
THD+N (-20db) 0.006% K-Grade (PCM1704 spec) 0.01% J/K Grade (AD1865 spec)
THD+N (-60db) 0.37% .05% resistors (Module measurement) 1% J/K Grade (AD1865 spec)
SNR 126 dB (Link) 120 dB 110 dB


(1) The Soekris R2R implements 28 bits of internal resolution in order to provide sufficient headroom to allow for a “perfect digital volume control. At -72 db volume you still have 16 bit resolution with perfect linearity” [link].

(2) The PCM1704 and AD1865 are NOS ladder DACs expecting an input stream from an external filter device such as the DF1704 [link]. Therefore they typically cannot accept and I2S input format. The input format for those chips consists of a clock signal, data signal and data latch signal. More information can be found in Ian’s “I2S to PCM” board project [link].

(3) The oversampling filter is implemented in the on-board  Spartan-6 LX16 FPGA. It has 15K logic cells and can be configured as having 8 full high resolution MAC’s by using its 32 DSP48A1 MAC blocks in groups of 4 allowing them to do 35 x 35 bit multiplications plus 70 bit summers. Two of these hig-res MACs can be used  for the first 2 most critical oversampling FIR filters; running them at just 49.152 Mhz makes space for 1024 coefficients if needed, then 2 more for the rest of the FIR filters. The rest for other functions, like de-emphasis, volume control and digital crossover filters… [link]. The user can use generate the filter coefficients and upload them to the FPGA [link]

Filter tools:

Here is a photo showing some of the details disclosed in the diyaudio thread. The LVC595A [link] are 8-bit shift registers: 7 bits on one side of the chip and the 8th bit on the other side of the chip. In this implementation the 8th bit is not used in order to optimize the layout (only using the outputs on one side of the chip) as can be seen in the photo.



The capacitor in the low pass filter (C142 in the photo) is the only capacitor in the signal path. It is a high quality C0G/NP0 ceramic. Those wishing for “higher quality” can replace/bypass with a film capacitor.


The input is isolated with (what appears to be) TI ISO7420FE digital galvanic isolators [link]. There are 3 identical isolators resulting in 6 input lines. I think these support one I2S input and 3x SPDIF/TOSLINK/AES/EBU (I don’t know if the SPDIF lines are isolated, but there is no need for 6 isolated inputs if only the I2S is isolated). More info on isolators here [link]. Seems everyone has their favorite isolation device. Of the 4 different vendors I have surveyed, they have all been used by different audio diy implementers.

The TI ISO7420x and ISO7421x provide galvanic isolation up to 2500 V RMS for 1 minute per UL and 4242 V PK per VDE. These devices have two isolated channels. Each channel has a logic input and output buffer separated by a silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) insulation barrier.


Built-in galvanic isolation at the input is a great idea. This gives the capability to completely isolate noise disturbance is coming from the source, including isolating ground, and since here is a FIFO reclocking stage afterwards, there is no need to worry about the small added jitter (100-200 psec RMS) that these devices would add to the data.

(update [link]) There will be two AES/Spdif inputs:

  • Balanced into LVDS Receiver, can be connected directly to transformer and can be run single ended for SPDIF Coax, just a capacitor and two resistors needed when single ended 75R. To keep it isolated I recommend to always use a transformer for AES Balanced and SPDIF Single Ended inputs.
  • 3.3V CMOS level input, can be connected directly to SPDIF Optical Toslink receiver.

Selection between I2S and AES/SPDIF sources can be automatic or manual with two pins that can be connected directly to a control switch. For more sources you can also just switch the inputs.


A notable feature of this DAC module is the reclocking of the incoming. The design is similar in principle to Ian’s FIFO reclocker, The data is received into a configurable FIFO and then it is reclocked with a lower jitter clock.

However, Ian’s reclocker is designed for ultimate performance, whereas this reclocker is designed specifically for the DAC module and therefore matched to the requirements of the entire system (meaning, I think, the best consideration for jitter performance, cost and part count).

Here are the main differences between the two:

Ian’s FIFO reclocker

  • Clock is Si570 which is the best programmable clock from Silicon Labs (.3 psec RMS jitter) [link]
  • Clock drives the low jitter shift registers through a clock-fanout [link]. The jitter in the fan-out device is in the fsec range

Here is the clock board in Ian’s reclocker: the Si570 is used to clock the shift registers directly.  The clock connects to a fan-out device (the chip next to the clock) and separate clock lines drive the 3 shift registers in the middle of the board.


R2R Module reclocker

  • Clock is Si514 is the lower grade of programmable clocks from Silicon Labs (.8 psec RMS jitter) [link]. This is used instead of the Si570 because of power consumption (lower consumption for the Si514)
  • Clock signal is transmitted through the FPGA for clock division and then to the shift registers. The added jitter in the FPGA is in the psec range. More details on the jitter through the FPGA here [link]

Here is the Si514 feeding its clock to the FPGA. The FPGA supplies the clock to the shift registers.


However, the reclocked signal in the R2R module feeds straight through the resistor ladder avoiding “several layers” of electronics as compared to a conventional implementation where the reclocked signal feeds the I2S receiver, the internal filters and other electronics of DAC chip. Internally, these “several layers” of electronics add jitter to the signal before arriving to the D/A conversion stage.

In the end, the actual jitter as seen by the resistor ladder is the cumulative jitter consisting of following components

  • Clock intrinsic jitter (0.8 psec RMS)
  • Jitter added by the FPGA (I think in the order of 10s psec RMS based on datasheet numbers)
  • Jitter added by the shift registers in the psec order based on general data on shift registers

10s of psec RMS jitter at the resistor ladder is pretty darn good in my opinion.

Further details [link]

The details of my clocking/FIFO:

Ian’s FIFO use a fixed clock, and therefore use a large buffer to take up the difference between incoming and outgoing clock. That add a large delay, which doesn’t matter for simple audio applications but are undesirable in a number of applications, like home theater or live music.

I use a much shorter FIFO, selectable down to 1 mS, and instead adjust the outgoing clock to match the incoming clock frequency as needed, being I2S or SPDIF. The Si514 oscillator used is very low jitter and digitally programmable with a resolution of 0.026 ppb (parts per billion, not million…). It also have the feature that reprogramming inside +-1000 ppm is glitchless, ie the clock adjust very nicely to small changes.


The onboard microprocessor is the STM32F030 uC [link]. It is responsible for:

  • Measure input clock and program the Si514 programmable clock as needed
  • Initially, volume control by using a potentiometer
  • More features later since this is a general purpose uC

The specific device is the 32 pin device of the family with 16 general I/O pins. I believe some of the I/O pins are available through J1


The following details have been shared about the power section of the DAC ([link], [link], [link])

  • Designed to be powered by a single dual 7-8V, 5W transformer. Can also take an external +/- 7-15V DC supply. Filter capacitors are Nichicon 820uF 16V CL series
  • “The LME output buffers are powered via an additional large RC filter after the main capacitors, no active regulators. With a typical PSRR of 125 db I didn’t worry much about 100/120 hz ripple, only worried about higher frequency noise on the power rails….”
  • A DC-DC converter (switch mode) provides the 1.2V for the FPGA core. Every other supply is low noise linear [link]
  • The most critical supply is the +/- 4V reference for the resistor ladder.  This is generated by a “two step, first to +- 5V, then to +-4V by precision low noise medium current opamps”; “-4V reference is sent though an inverter with 0.01% resistors generating the +4 reference”. The references are further  “filtered and buffered for each rail and channel”.
  • Negative voltage is required for the output opamps and other parts of the circuit [link]

Here is a picture of the main supply section. The description is my best guess based on the information provided. I believe the digital section is powered by a DC-DC converter-regulator, except for the clock which has its own regulator.



I think the ability for user-defined custom digital filters is a BIG feature for this DAC. In addition to the traditional DAC filters, one can load filters that implement crossover functions.

One of my frustrations with the ESS DAC is that I have not been able to take advantage of the custom filter facility. I am able to program everything else, except for the custom filters. Even though some claim that this feature works fine, I have not encountered any diy implementation and only one or two commercial implementations. Whether due to my own ignorance or to other factors (such as lacking documentation), fact is that there are no publicly disclosed diy successes of having implemented custom filters in the ESS DACs.

With crossover filters, there is finally a BIT PERFECT high quality DAC + digital crossover solution. More specifically, current digital crossovers if used with an external DAC of choice would add additional A/D or D/A conversions plus asynchronous sample rate conversion. Imagine a more “straight wire” implementation.


(Update [link]):

First firmware release will NOT support digital crossovers, although there will be 14 available biquads, already tested in order to support de-emphasis on SPDIF inputs. As somebody already noted, there is issue of syncronization…. I have a couple of ideas how to connect multiple boards together, but I don’t have time to implement and test before shipping the first batch. But as I already said, all firmware on the board is upgradable though a std PC serial port, I will implement it soon as my big speakers are already designed for electronic crossover use….

  1. October 13, 2014 at 09:57

    I definitely love your post, even if I follow the topic since day one, you really know how to synthesize things and even learn news things about 🙂

    After asking him for this feature: Soren told me than he will provide a way to get “native” balanced from raw outputs when going dual mono.

    Thought I wonder how using multiple board will work. I can’t hide how I’m excited about this project. It’s such a great pricing for a in house discrete R-2R dacs compared to TotalDac or Msb, it looks quite open and there is room for many great build around this design.

    • BlgGear
      October 13, 2014 at 17:38

      Yes, certainly a great price. I am happy Soren has a real business so he can make this module accessible for us… 🙂
      For multiple boards, I am more interested in the fact that you can load custom filters as crossover filters.

      • October 14, 2014 at 09:58

        Of course, crossovers will be the big deal for most diyaudio users.
        I’m a headphones guy, going balanced is the way to go to get last bit of performance.

        Still, I did not get what will be required to use multiple modules with I2S and S/Pdif, simple signal splitting ?

        It’s not clear for me whether the fpga will be able to hold multiple user switchable filters ? or will we need to reprogram it every time ?

  2. Sam5050
    October 13, 2014 at 16:28

    Excellent thread! I’m a R2R convert – I love the the rich natural tone they produce. Google: ‘Mother of Tone – R2R Dacs’ for a great explanation of the operation of R2R versus Sigma Delta and Multi bit Segmented dacs.

    I went about it a little differently – bought a tubed dac based on the PCM1704 – the Lite Dac 60 and modded it. Swapping out the coupling caps for Mundorf Supremes, adding Vishay MKP 1838 .01uf film as parallel bypasses, swapped out a main ps resistor for a Hammond choke, replaced a pr of ps ‘lytics for a Mundorf M’lytic dual cap, and swapped out the stock PG, Elna standard, and Sanyos for Elna Silmic IIs, Nichicon Fine Golds and Ruby KXW and BXWs. And of course upgraded the 6922’s from JJ’s to totl Voskhod Rocket 6n23p ’75’s.

    The sound stock was very good, now extraordinary. Really natural rich tonality, great detail, treble ext and deep defined bass. The sound stage larger with a more holographic presentation.

    Really happy to see a new R2R on the market – will be following this thread for future developments. Thanks!

  3. October 17, 2014 at 22:30

    Thanks for the excellent digest of the thread.

    Is it possible to say/see whether the onboard microcontroller has pinouts enough to accommodate both a pot and an IR receiver so as to accommodate remote volume and maybe remote source selection? Would be the icing on the cake.

    • BlgGear
      October 18, 2014 at 00:19

      The device has 16 general purpose I/O pins. It uses 2 pins for I2C communication with the clock, 2 pins for serial communication with the FPGA, so there are 12 pins for other functions. I would guess these pins are exposed through J1. I cannot see the connections as the digital traces are in the bottom layer.

  4. David Quayle
    October 21, 2014 at 10:54

    You have definitely pricked my interest. My ideal would also include a screen, BBB (or similar) & SSD so everything happens in one box.

  5. David Quayle
    October 22, 2014 at 08:26

    I don’t suppose you know if it is theoretically possible to use your code (modified) to control the DACs/Crossovers (or BIII for that matter) while running it all from a BBB (or similar) and have Linux running to supply the music via a GUI.

    • BlgGear
      October 23, 2014 at 17:22

      It would be hard for the Arduino to provide a GUI to control the playback from BBB. Potentially you could have a tablet as a GUI for BBB (Volumio for example) and have the app (Volumio) have code that can control the DACs

  6. Anonymous
    October 23, 2014 at 21:31

    I was thinking that the BBB (or similar) would ideally do everything but have no idea whether your code could be converted to run on the BBB.
    There is always the option to run two screens & 2 embedded devices I guess but that doesn’t seem like the most sensible way to go. I tried to insert a link to a drawing of what I mean but couldn’t get it to upload.

    • BlgGear
      October 24, 2014 at 16:42

      Sure, one can port or rewrite all the code to run on the BBB. The BBB should be powerful enough to run the music application and control the DAC (not much computational power is needed to control a DAC or LCD display anyway). However, I remain a bit skeptical a the quality of the data (the I2S) when coming out of a SOC chip like the ones used in BBB and RPI. When I connected the I2S stream directly to the Buffalo DAC, it would only play with out loosing lock only when using the highest setting in the DPLL bandwidth. And this was just 48K material. Yes, there is TPA cape in development but feeding the clock to the SOI chip I fear would “contaminate” the clock signal. Like everyone else, I am waiting for the results…

      I think the better approach (for a DAC) would data reclock with a FIFO like Ian’s FIFO reclocker and now integrated into a DAC in the form of the R2R DAC from Soekris (and also seen in other implementations such as this product from AUNE: http://www.shenzhenaudio.com/aune-s16-hifi-diy-32bit-384khz-dsd128-fifo-full-isolation-usb-dac-headphone-amplifier-2014-new.html). With this approach, then then source can be anything. And although this is diy, it is too much pain dealing with Linux and and embedded board. Better off running iTunes or Foobar.

  7. David Quayle
    October 25, 2014 at 07:44

    Thanks for the thoughts. My guess is the Botic is a while away yet and I have plenty of other things to get finished, so I’ll just keep watching.

  8. WK
    November 3, 2014 at 17:28

    I just found this blog and it’s great. I’m looking for DIY (Arduino?) HW/SW that I can build for not too much cost that would provide 8-ch digital audio inputs (optical ADAT or AES) to 8 HiFi analog balanced outputs with a simple gain attenuation control for each channel between. I need this to balance adjust 8-channel audio levels from a computer i/o to 8 powered surround monitors in my studio. If possible a single master gain that will attenuate all outputs post channel gain control would also be very helpful.

    Any and all help is appreciated.

    • BlgGear
      November 3, 2014 at 20:18

      The 8-channel ESS DAC can do what you want to do. You are free to reuse the code I’ve written. There there is volume control to each of the channels. You add individual “trim” values to each channel.

  9. Anonymous
    November 3, 2014 at 21:45

    Thanks so much for the quick response. “The 8-channel ESS DAC can do what you want to do.” Can you offer a link for where to get one and is this just the DAC, a DIY board, or pre-built unit? Thanks again.


  10. JG
    November 9, 2014 at 19:50

    The jitter in the fan-out device is in the fsec range..

    Added jitter that is.

  11. Mekr
    December 29, 2014 at 09:42

    Hello To all, I have been following this thread on DIY regularly,I wanted to know has anyone tried a complete assembled unit or ready to assemble DAC with this FPGA board DAC by soekris as in my 60 years of my life ,I have not any DIY,but certainly would like to own one.

  12. Anonymous
    December 29, 2014 at 13:47

    If you followed it closely you would know that it has not been delivered yet.

    • Anonymous
      December 30, 2014 at 01:47

      Thanks ,somewhere in the post members talked of 2 nd group buy, hence I was intrigued if 1 st group buy for boards has been delivered

      • Anonymous
        December 30, 2014 at 06:29

        There is no group buy for the soekris dac. The discussion is about the first production run of 240 boards and the second batch which is going to production 5th January.

  13. Anon
    January 24, 2015 at 12:17

    Excellent post and blog. Very interested in this DAC too, lots of potential there.

    I have an observation though about your ‘straight wire’ picture. Why do you need USB in that picture? Why not getting rig of an entire layer with a straight pcie-to-i2s adapter? Like this one http://www.tnt-audio.com/sorgenti/pinkfaun_i2s_bridge_e.html. Not so many of those and the linked one Isnt the best (expensive and may be quite noisy as it sits inside the PC) but I’m sure people like you can figure out something fast.
    To me the most “straight wire” of today would be PCIE -> pcie-to-i2s -> i2s dac -> active speakers.
    Or maybe you can figure out an even more close-to-the-metal way to get audiobits out of the pc/beagle/whatever into the DAC. Like something closer to the cpu than pcie and/or something closer to the DAC chip than i2s (not sure if any of those do exist or are even possible with current chips).

    Anyway, congrats and keep up the super work.

    • BlgGear
      January 25, 2015 at 06:33

      That pcie adapter is a lot of money. If you want “closer” to the metal get a Raspberry pi for $35 (https://hifiduino.wordpress.com/2014/11/12/raspberry-pi-version-b/) and take the I2S output. But if you like the convenience of a PC, the USB interfaces are pretty cheap and there are many to choose from…
      Or you can get a Fiio X1 ($99) and tap the I2S pins.

  14. January 27, 2015 at 11:02

    Is possible bypass the digital filter and exclude the oversampling ?

  15. Anonymous
    January 30, 2015 at 08:20

    Great article, as usual! My board is on the way. Cannot wait for it to arrive. You are very correct that finally a great solution for digital crossover is here.

    I am just finishing my mega project of properly done digital crossover. It is consisted of multichannel TITAN USB to I2S board run as a slave to the master Acko’s Turbo Clock with two Acko’s ESS 9012DACs also in a slave sync mode and all with balanced analog volume control. Almost done, but very tired, 🙂 After 11 internal transformers, 30 separate power supplies and super regulators, 6 different I2S and I2C isolators….

    Compared to this Seokris’s board, main advantage to this R2R DAC will be simplicity and void of so many different boards and parts. It is all there. The added beauty is also its RAW output – no IV conversion needed, theoretically could go straight to the amp. I am hoping for real refreshing and easy project that just needs to be packaged in enclosure.

    Ideally, for standalone digital crossover project we still need a good DSP that could do 384 KHz meant to mate with these DACs I think we are still far away from that. In the meantime, I am using Pure Music that does that pretty well so far.

    • BlgGear
      January 30, 2015 at 15:53

      Thanks. That is one monster project. I think Soren is showing a lot of interest in the freeDSP threads, so additional products may come from him.

  16. February 10, 2015 at 00:34

    Just found this document, where it is described how to program the filter coefficients in ESS dac. https://myl8test.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/download-es9018-datasheet-here.pdf

    • BlgGear
      February 10, 2015 at 06:54

      That method is specific to the ESS DAC. But it did not work for me. I have heard people having success in programming the filters but no one has shared how they did it. Following the instructions in the datasheet did not work for me.

  17. September 14, 2016 at 17:06

    biggers mazda

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  19. robert
    November 29, 2018 at 09:13

    Hello iam interested on that great project. Is that dead now, what is the status and do i can buy one ?
    Tx, robert from austria

  1. October 22, 2014 at 14:50
  2. February 1, 2015 at 01:19
  3. March 16, 2015 at 15:15
  4. July 29, 2016 at 16:57

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